Overview of Translation( Protein Biosynthesis)

The process by which information contained in messenger RNA (mRNA) guides the addition of amino acids during protein synthesis is known as a translation of protein in the domain of genomics. In simple terms, translation means, the process of formation of protein from DNA to MRNA to Protein.

Translation Definition

The translation is defined as the method by which a cell produces proteins by utilizing the genetic data conveyed by messenger RNA (mRNA). By copying DNA, the mRNA is produced, and the information it carries instructs the cell on how to assemble proteins from amino acids.

The process of translating mRNA into the series of amino acid chains that make up the protein is called translation, and it occurs in ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell. At the ribosome, which is made up of proteins and rRNA, translation takes place. During translation, tRNA transports the appropriate sequence of amino acids to the ribosome after reading the instructions in the mRNA.

Then, rRNA aids in the formation of linkages between the amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. A polypeptide chain may be further processed in order to produce the completed protein once it has been produced.

Central Dogma

An explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system is the core tenet of molecular biology. Although this was not the phrase’s original meaning, it is sometimes phrased as “DNA makes RNA, and RNA makes protein.” Francis Crick made the initial statement in 1957, and it was later published in 1958. James Watson published a simplified diagram of the DNA–RNA–protein route in the first edition of The Molecular Biology of the Gene (1965).

DNA→ RNA →Protein

Steps in Translation

For the translation, we divided the process into three steps:


1. Initiation step:

The ribosome assembles around the initial tRNA and the mRNA that will be read during initiation (carrying the amino acid methionine, which matches the start codon, AUG). Translation cannot begin until this preparation, known as the initiation complex, has taken place.

2. Elongation step:

The stage of elongation is when the length of the amino acid chain increases. The amino acid that corresponds to each codon is added to a lengthening protein chain during elongation, which reads the mRNA one codon at a time.

  1. According to the codons found in the mRNA, the polypeptide chain keeps growing.
  2. Each amino acid has a peptide bond attaching it to the growing chain.
  3. Elongation continues till the whole gene is translated.

3. Termination step

As stop codons like UAA, UAG, or UGA lack tRNAs, translation is complete when the ribosome reaches them.
The freshly synthesized polypeptide chain is then released, and translation halts as a result.


Role of tRNA in translation

The synthesis and translation of proteins both depend heavily on the transfer of RNA. Its function is to convert the information contained in the mRNA’s nucleotide sequence into a particular amino acid sequence. A protein is produced by joining these sequences together. Transfer RNA has three loops and is fashioned like a clover leaf. It has an amino acid attachment site on one end and an exclusive region known as the anticodon site in the middle loop. A codon, which is a particular region on mRNA, is recognized by the anticodon.

What is the role of amino acids during protein synthesis?

Amino acids serve a variety of purposes. Their primary function is to act as the monomer while making new proteins. Amino acids can be used as substrates for biosynthetic reactions and are the source of nucleotide bases, many neurotransmitters, and hormones.

Differences Between Translation and Transcription

It is defined as the synthesizing of RNA copies from DNA.it is defined as the formation of protein from mRNA.
it is the first step of gene expression.it is the second step of gene expression.
It formed the functional RNA.It formed protein.
mRNA is involved.mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are involved.
RNA polymerase enzyme is used in transcription to copy RNA from DNA.Ribosomes are used during translation to make proteins from RNA transcripts.
Transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell.It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Transcription related to genetic information.Translation related to protein biosynthesis.


What is the process of translation in protein?

The process of translating mRNA into the chain of amino acids that makes up the produced protein occurs in ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell.

What is the translation process?

The process of translation converts the information carried by messenger RNA from DNA into a string of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Translation from one code (nucleotide sequence) to another code is essentially what it is (amino acid sequence).

What are the three steps of translation?

1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination

Where does protein synthesis start?

In the nucleus, where ribosomes receive their instructions to start the process, fresh protein synthesis gets underway. In a process known as transcription, segments of DNA (genes) that code for certain proteins are copied over to messenger RNA (mRNA) strands.

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