Centrifugation: Definition, Principle, Types, and 3 Reliable Application

Centrifugation is the simple process of separating molecules having different densities and working under centrifugal force. It is one of the most useful and frequently used techniques. Generally used in microbiology, biotechnology, chemistry, etc. By rapidly spinning molecules in solution around an axis (in a centrifuge rotor), centrifugation is a technique for separating molecules with various densities.

Centrifugation Definition

The mechanical process of centrifugation separates particles from a solution based on the particles’ size, shape, density, medium viscosity, and rotor speed. While the less dense components of the mixture move closer to the centrifuge’s axis, the denser components move farther away from it. Using centrifugal acceleration, centrifugation separates phases (liquid-liquid or solid-liquid) with different densities.

Centrifugation Principle

Sedimentation is the centrifuge’s operating method. The centrifugation method operates under the premise that particles suspended in liquid media can be separated using a centrifugal field. These are put in the rotor of the centrifuge in tubes or bottles. Gravity causes suspended particles to settle out of fluids through sedimentation. Clay or powder particles could be suspended substances. Think of tea leaves settling to the bottom of a teacup as an illustration.
Smaller particles do not sediment under gravity; they are separated from bigger particles by a straightforward filtration procedure. Those particles can be separated using the central force.

The rate of particle sediment depends upon the:

  1. RCFs in the centrifuge
  2. size of particle
  3. liquid viscosity
  4. particle density and liquid density

Types of centrifugation

The different modes of centrifugation are discussed below with a diagram:

1. Differential centrifugation

Sedimentation of a particle in a homogeneous liquid is a component of different processes. It involves determining a particle’s sedimentation coefficient. An evolving border between the pure solvent and the sedimenting particles is created during centrifugation. The Svedberg equation relates the molecular weight of a sedimenting particle’s S value to that particle. The frictional force is described in the Svedberg equation.

differential centrifugation

2. Density gradient centrifugation

With density gradient centrifugation, scientists may sort cells with similar fundamental sizes, such as white and red blood cells, by separating them according to their density rather than their mass and size. Density gradients use density-known medium reagents to help produce discrete cell population layers during centrifugation, whereas differential centrifugation does not require additional separation reagents.


Application of centrifugation

  1. Centrifugation separates minute variations in molecular conformation, precipitates DNA, collects cells, and purifies viral particles.
  2. The following applications of centrifugation in the food industry: milk separation, cheese manufacturing, pulp control in juices, manufacture of edible oils, recovery of essential oils, and production of starch and yeast.
  3. When it comes to eliminating significant volumes of particles, centrifugation is far more effective than plate filters. The use and disposal of diatomaceous earth and other filter aids might lead to potential health issues (dust and worker allergies). Centrifugation also prevents these issues.

Manufacturer of centrifuging machine

1. Fischer Scientific

High-speed centrifuges, microcentrifuges, benchtop centrifuges, clinical centrifuges, and benchtop centrifuges are just a few of the centrifuges that Fisher Scientific designs and manufactures. $1,000 to $5,000 for the benchtop. $10,000 to $25,000 for large capacity/high speed. $10,000 to $50,000 for an ultracentrifuge.

fischer scientific centrifuge

Source: Thermo Fischer Scientific benchtop instruments

2. Vesca Scientific Lab instruments

Since its establishment in 2011, Vesca Scientific Lab Instruments has grown to become one of India’s top manufacturers and suppliers of centrifuges.
Additionally, they provide top-notch lab supplies and tools like the Industrial Laboratory Heating Plate Memmert Type Hot Air Oven, Deep Freezer, Mild Steel Laboratory BOD Incubator, and Laboratory Plant Growth Chamber. They work hard to provide just the best products at the most competitive prices to guarantee their customer base’s satisfaction.

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