Ionic bond is a type of chemical bond which is formed between two or more than two atoms by the transfer of one or more electrons among atoms.
Ionic bond definition
Ionic bond can be defined as a bond that is formed between two or more than two atoms by the transfer of electrons among atoms. It is also known as an electrovalent bond.
Loss of electrons by an atom of an element forms cation and gain of electron results in an anion. The cation and anions are held together by an electrostatic force of attraction between them.
Ionic bond examples
Some examples of the formation of ionic examples are shown below:
Formation of Sodium chloride/NaCl
The sodium atom has one electron in the valence shell hence it losses it to form cation in order to attain noble gas electronic gas configuration. Similarly, Cl-atom has 7 electrons in the valence shell therefore it accepts one electron from Na-atom to anion. The force of attraction between cation and anion is held together to form an ionic bond in NaCl.
Other examples: MgCl2, Al2O3, etc.
How are ionic bonds formed
An ionic bond is formed by the loss of electrons by one atom and gain by another atom. One atom losses one or more electrons to attain a noble gas electronic configuration. On losing electrons, the cation is formed. Similarly, another atom of element gains one or more electrons to attain a noble gas electronic configuration. On gaining electrons, the anion is formed. The formed cations and anions are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between them and hence ionic bond is formed. Example: formation of sodium chloride.
Ionic bond properties
- Ionic bond is electrostatic force of attraction among cations and anions.
- Ionic bond is non-directional in nature which means electrostatic force of attraction can exist from any direction.
- There are no discrete molecules in ionic compounds.
- The number of electrons lost or gained by an atom of an element is called electrovalency.
Ionic compound properties
- These compunds possess ionic bonds
- These compounds exist as solids in room temperature.
- These compounds have very high melting and boiling points.This is due to strong force of attraction among the oppositively charged particles.
- These compounds are generally soluble in polar solvent like water but insoluble in organic solvents.
- Ionic crystal are hard and brittle in nature.
- Ionic compounds can not conduct electricity in solid state as ions are not movable in solid state.But, when dissloved in polar solvents, its solution can conduct electricity due to formation of movable ions.
Difference between covalent bond and ionic bond
|Covalent bond||Ionic bond|
|It is formed by sharing of electrons between combining atoms||It is formed by the transfer of electrons between combining atoms.|
|The covalent bond is directional in nature.||The ionic bond is non-directional in nature.|
|If a molecule contains covalent bonds, the compound is covalent and it has defined geometry.||If a molecule contains even a single ionic bond, the compound does not have defined geometry.|
|Example: H-Cl bond||Example: Na+Cl– bond|
What type of elements form ionic bond?
Metals like alkali and alkaline earth metals and nonmetals elements like halogens generally form ionic bonds.
Are ionic bonds stronger than covalent bonds?
No. A Covalent bond is stronger than an ionic bond.
Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds?
Ammonium Chloride(NH4Cl), KCN, NaNO3, etc. compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds.
Are ionic bonds polar?
Yes, ionic bonds are polar in nature due to the presence of two oppositely charged particles.
How do ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds?
Ionic bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons while the covalent bond is formed by mutual sharing of electrons between combining atoms.
what happens to electrons in an ionic bond?
In ionic bonds, one atom losses electrons while another atom gains electrons hence the transfer of electrons takes place.
what is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
The fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding is that mutual sharing of electrons takes place in covalent bonds while the transfer of electrons takes place in ionic bonding.
which element reacts with oxygen to form ionic bonds?
Alkali and alkaline earth metals like Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium react with oxygen to form ionic bonds.
which bond is stronger ionic or covalent?
A covalent bond is stronger than an ionic bond.
which compound contains ionic bonds?
Compounds like NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, etc. contain ionic bonds.
which pair of elements will form an ionic bond?
Only valence electrons will form an ionic bond.
why do ionic bonds form?
An ionic bond is formed by the loss of electrons by one atom and gain by another atom. One atom losses one or more electrons to attain a noble gas electronic configuration. On losing electrons, the cation is formed. Similarly, another atom of element gains one or more electrons to attain a noble gas electronic configuration. On gaining electrons, the anion is formed. The formed cations and anions are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between them and hence ionic bond is formed.
do ionic bonds conduct electricity?
Ionic compounds conduct electricity only in solution phase otherwise it acts as an insulator in the solid phase.
do ionic bonds have high melting points?
Ionic compounds have melting points because oppositely charged particles are held together by a strong force of attraction.
do ionic bonds dissolve in water?
yes, ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents like water.