Covalent bond, Coordinate covalent bond, and Types and Properties

Table of Contents

Coordinate covalent bond, covalent bond, their properties, examples as well as polar and nonpolar bonds have been discussed in this post. Covalent bond is a type of chemical bond which is formed by the mutual sharing of two electrons between combining atoms.

Covalent bond definition

A bond formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between the combining atoms of the same or different element is called a covalent bond.

Some of the examples of covalent bonds are bonding in H2 molecules, bonding in Cl2 molecules, bonding in NH3 molecules, etc.

why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds?

When an atom has fewer electrons in the valence shell than the nearest noble gas configuration, the atoms can share electrons with other atoms to attain the nearest noble gas configuration. The shared pair of electrons come from both the participating atoms and these electrons are responsible for the stabilities of both atoms.

properties of covalent bonds

Some of the characteristics of covalent bonds are listed below:

  1. A covalent bond is formed as the result of sharing of two electrons between combining atoms and bond is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals of combining atoms.
  2. More than one electron can be shared by the participating atoms forming multiple bonds. Example: In O2 molecules.
  3. Covalent bonds are directional in nature which means they are formed by overlapping of orbitals oriented in a particular direction.
  4. The number of electrons shared by an atom is called covalency of that element.

Non covalent bond

A bond that is not formed by sharing of electrons but formed due to various types of electromagnetic interactions between the molecules is called a non-covalent bond. Examples of non-covalent bonds: Van der Waal forces, dipole-dipole interaction, etc.

Ionic vs covalent bonds

Difference between ionic and covalent bonds:

Ionic bondCovalent bond
It is formed by the transfer of electrons between combining atoms.It is formed by sharing of electrons between combining atoms
The ionic bond is non-directional in nature.The covalent bond is directional in nature.
If a molecule contains even a single ionic bond, the compound does not have defined geometryIf a molecule contains covalent bonds, the compound is covalent and it has defined geometry
Example: Na+Cl bondExample: H-Cl bond
difference between ionic bond vs covalent bond

Coordinate covalent bond

The bond formed by the sharing of electrons in which both the shared paired of electrons are contributed by one of the bonded atoms only is called coordinate covalent bond. This bond is also known as the dative bond.

The atoms which donate pair of electrons is called donor atom while the atom which accepts the shared pair of electrons is called an acceptor.

Example of coordinate covalent bond: Formation of ammonium ion, formation of hydronium ion, etc.

coordinate covalent bond

Types of Covalent bond

On the basis of electronegativity difference between two combining atoms, a covalent bond is of two types.

  1. Polar covalent bond
  2. Non polar covalent bond

Polar covalent bond

If the bonded pair of electrons are shared unequally between combining atoms, then such a bond is called a polar covalent bond. If one of the combining atoms has a higher electronegativity than other atoms, then a polar covalent bond results. A polar covalent bond is created when one of the combining atoms has a higher electronegativity than other atoms.

polar covalent bond examples

Some examples of polar covalent bonds: Bonding in H-Cl molecule, Bonding in H2O molecule, etc.

Non polar covalent bond

If the bonded pair of electrons are shared equally between combining atoms, then such a bond is called a nonpolar covalent bond. If both the combining atoms have almost the same electronegativity then, a nonpolar covalent bond results.

Nonpolar covalent bond examples

Some examples of nonpolar covalent bonds: Bonding in CH4 molecules, bonding in H2 molecules etc.

Single covalent bond

A covalent bond in which one paired of electrons is shared between two atoms is called a single covalent bond. Only two electrons are shared in a single covalent bond. Examples: The single covalent bond is present in alkanes in which one electron pair is shared between two carbon atoms.

Double covalent bond

A covalent bond in which two paired of electrons are shared between two atoms is called a double covalent bond. Four electrons are shared in a double covalent bond. Examples: The double covalent bond is present in alkene in which two electron pairs are shared between two carbon atoms.

Triple covalent bond

A covalent bond in which three paired of electrons are shared between two atoms is called a triple covalent bond. Six electrons are shared in a triple covalent bond.

Examples: The triple covalent bond is present in alkyne in which three electron pairs are shared between two carbon atoms

FAQs:

what is a nonpolar covalent bond?

If the bonded pair of electrons are shared equally between combining atoms, then such a bond is called a nonpolar covalent bond.

are hydrogen bonds covalent?

No, hydrogen bonds are not covalent but it is the type of dipole-dipole interaction.

are ionic bonds stronger than covalent bonds?

No, covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds.

are covalent bonds strong?

yes, covalent bonds are strong bonds. Especially, a polar covalent bond is the strongest one.

how many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?

Four electrons are shared in a double covalent bond.

how many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond?

Only two electrons are shared in a single covalent bond.

what type of elements form covalent bonds?

Generally, non-metals elements form covalent bonds.

which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds?

Some compounds like Sodium nitrate, potassium cyanide, etc contain both ionic and covalent bonds

do covalent bonds share electrons?

yes, there is sharing of electrons in a covalent bond.

how many covalent bonds can hydrogen form?

Since its atoms have only one electron in the valence shell, hydrogen can form only one covalent bond.

how many covalent bonds can nitrogen form?

Nitrogen can form three covalent bonds.

how many covalent bonds can oxygen form?

Oxygen can form only two covalent bonds.

how do ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds?

An ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons while covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between combining atoms.

is water a covalent bond?

Water is a covalent compound since it contains covalent bonds between oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

what happens to electrons in a covalent bond?

Mutual sharing of electrons takes place between combining atoms.

what is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?

An ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons while the covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between combining atoms.

do covalent bonds conduct electricity?

Covalent bonds don’t conduct electricity as they do not ionize in water.

how is a covalent bond different from an ionic bond?

An ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons while the covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between combining atoms.

how many single covalent bonds can carbon form?

Carbon can form four single covalent bonds because carbon atoms contain only 4 valence electrons.

what is a coordinate covalent bond?

The bond formed by the sharing of electrons in which both the shared paired of electrons are contributed by one of the bonded atoms only is called coordinate covalent bond.

which bond is stronger ionic or covalent?

An ionic bond is stronger than a covalent bond due to the strong coulombic force of attraction.

which substance has nonpolar covalent bonds?

Many compounds have like homonuclear molecules(H2, O2,N2) have non polar covalent bonds.

is nacl a covalent bond?

NaCl is an ionic compound because it contains an ionic bonds.

similarities between ionic and covalent bonds

Both ionic and covalent bonds lead to the formation of stable molecules and both have the same method of bonding technique.

what type of atoms form covalent bonds?

Mainly nonmetals atoms like Carbon, hydrogen, Nitrogen, sulful etc. can form covalent bonds.

define polar covalent bond

If the bonded pair of electrons are shared unequally between combining atoms, then such a bond is called a polar covalent bond.

how is electronegativity related to covalent bonding?

If one of the combining atoms has a higher electronegativity than other atoms, then a polar covalent bond results. If both the combining atoms have almost the same electronegativity then, a nonpolar covalent bond results.

how many electrons are involved in a single covalent bond?

Only two electrons are involved in a single covalent bond.

what are shared in a covalent bond?

Valence shell electrons of combining atoms are shared in a covalent bond.

covalent bond melting point

The most covalent compound has low melting point due to weaker forces of attraction among molecules.

how are hydrogen bonds different from covalent bonds?

The covalent bond is formed due to the mutual sharing of electrons while hydrogen bond is not formed by sharing of electrons but formed due to a special type of interaction.

how many covalent bonds can sulfur form?

a sulfur atom can form only two covalent bonds due to the presence of 6 electrons in valence shell.

how many covalent bonds does carbon form?

Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds.

how many electrons are shared in a triple covalent bond?

6 electrons are shared in a triple covalent bond.

Coordinate covalent bond

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